cross-fire (n.) Look up cross-fire at
also crossfire, 1763, from cross- + fire (n.).
cross-hair (n.) Look up cross-hair at
also crosshair, cross-hairs, 1755, of a telescope, 1780 in gunnery, from cross- + hair (n.). Also often in early 19c. spider-line, spider's-line (1819).
cross-over (n.) Look up cross-over at
also crossover, 1795, as a noun, a term in textiles, from the verbal phrase; see cross (v.) + over (adv.). From 1884 in railroading; from 1912 in biology. As a general adjective from 1893; specifically of musicians and genres from 1971.
cross-patch (n.) Look up cross-patch at
"peevish person," usually female, c. 1700, from cross (adj.) + patch (n.1) "piece."
cross-pollination (n.) Look up cross-pollination at
also cross pollination, 1882, from cross- + pollination.
cross-reference (n.) Look up cross-reference at
also crossreference, cross reference, 1834, from cross- + reference (n.). As a verb by 1902.
cross-section (n.) Look up cross-section at
also cross section, 1748, originally in engineering sketches, from cross (adj.) + section (n.). Figurative sense of "representative sample" is from 1903.
cross-stitch (n.) Look up cross-stitch at
1710, from cross- + stitch (n.). As a verb from 1794.
cross-street (n.) Look up cross-street at
1704, from cross- + street.
cross-walk (n.) Look up cross-walk at
also crosswalk, 1744 a type of garden path that crosses others; 1853 as "pedestrian crossing," from cross- + walk (n.).
cross-wind (n.) Look up cross-wind at
1725, from cross- + wind (n.1).
crossbar (n.) Look up crossbar at
mid-15c., from cross- + bar (n.1).
crossbow (n.) Look up crossbow at
mid-15c., from cross (n.) + bow (n.1).
crossing (n.) Look up crossing at
1530s, "a marking with a cross," verbal noun from cross (v.). From 1570s as "action of passing across;" 1630s as "place where (a river, a road, etc.) is crossed;" from 1690s as "intersection" (originally of streets). Meaning "action of crossing out by drawing crossed lines through" is from 1650s. Crossing-gate is from 1876.
crossly (adv.) Look up crossly at
"irritably," 1590s, from cross (adj.) + -ly (2).
crossroad (n.) Look up crossroad at
also cross-road, 1680s, from cross- + road. Figurative use from 1733.
crossroads (n.) Look up crossroads at
1795, in figurative sense of "a turning point, a moment of decision;" from crossroad. In U.S., used for "a crossroads and little more; small, dull town" by 1845.
crossword (adj.) Look up crossword at
January 1914, from cross (adj.) + word (n.). The first one ran in the "New York World" newspaper Dec. 21, 1913, but was called word-cross.
crossword (n.) Look up crossword at
1925, short for crossword puzzle (q.v.).
crotch (n.) Look up crotch at
1530s, original meaning "pitchfork," from Old North French croche "shepherd's crook," variant of croc "hook" (see crochet); meaning "region where the body forks" is 1590s.
crotchet (n.) Look up crotchet at
late 14c., "crocket," later "small hook" (early 15c.), from Old French crochet (pronounced "crotchet") "hook" (see crochet). As a surgical instrument, from 1750. Figurative use in musical notation is from mid-15c., from the shape of the notes. Meaning "whimsical fancy" is from 1570s; perhaps from the same mechanical image in crank; but other authorities link this sense to the musical notation one.
crotchety (adj.) Look up crotchety at
1825, from crotchet "whim or fancy" + -y (2). But the sense evolution is obscure.
crouch (v.) Look up crouch at
late 14c., probably from Old French crochir "become bent, crooked," from croche "hook" (see crochet). Related: Crouched; crouching. As a noun, from 1590s.
croup (n.) Look up croup at
"coughing illness," 1765, from obsolete verb croup "to cry hoarsely, croak" (1510s), probably echoic. This was the local name of the disease in southeastern Scotland, given wide currency by Dr. Francis Home (1719-1813) of Edinburgh in his 1765 article on it. Related: Croupy.
croupier (n.) Look up croupier at
"one who clears the winnings from the table in gambling," 1731, from French croupier (17c.), originally one who rides behind another, on the croup or "rump" of a horse (a word of Germanic origin); hence extended to any one who backs up another; a "second."
crouton (n.) Look up crouton at
1806, from French croûton "small piece of toasted bread," from croûte "crust," from Old French crouste (13c.), from Latin crusta (see crust (n.)).
crow (n.) Look up crow at
Old English crawe, imitative of bird's cry. Phrase eat crow is perhaps based on the notion that the bird is edible when boiled but hardly agreeable; first attested 1851, American English, but said to date to War of 1812 (Walter Etecroue turns up 1361 in the Calendar of Letter Books of the City of London). The image of a crow's foot for the wrinkles appearing with age at the corner of the eye is from late 14c. ("So longe mote ye lyve Til crowes feet be growen under youre ye." [Chaucer, Troilus and Criseyde, c. 1385]). Phrase as the crow flies recorded from 1800.
crow (v.) Look up crow at
Old English crawian "make a loud noise like a crow" (see crow (n.)); sense of "exult in triumph" is 1520s, perhaps in part because the English crow is a carrion-eater. Related: Crowed; crowing.
Crow Look up Crow at
Indian tribe of the American Midwest, the name is a rough translation of their own name, Apsaruke.
crowbar (n.) Look up crowbar at
1748, with bar (n.1), earlier simply crow (c. 1400); so called from its "beak" or from resemblance to a crow's foot; or possibly it is from crows, from Old French cros, plural of croc "hook."
crowd (v.) Look up crowd at
Old English crudan "to press, crush." Cognate with Middle Dutch cruden "to press, push," Middle High German kroten "to press, oppress," Norwegian kryda "to crowd." Related: Crowded; crowding.
crowd (n.) Look up crowd at
1560s, from crowd (v.). The earlier word was press (n.).
crowdfund (v.) Look up crowdfund at
by 2011, from crowd (n.) + fund (v.). Rrlated: Crowdfunded; crowdfunding.
crown (n.) Look up crown at
early 12c., "royal crown," from Anglo-French coroune, Old French corone (13c., Modern French couronne), from Latin corona "crown," originally "wreath, garland," related to Greek korone "anything curved, kind of crown." Old English used corona, directly from Latin.

Extended to coins bearing the imprint of a crown (early 15c.), especially the British silver 5-shilling piece. Also monetary units in Iceland, Sweden (krona), Norway, Denmark (krone), and formerly in German Empire and Austria-Hungary (krone). Meaning "top of the skull" is from c. 1300. Crown-prince is 1791, a translation of German kronprinz.
crown (v.) Look up crown at
late 12c., from Old French coroner, from corone (see crown (n.)). Related: Crowned; crowning. The latter in its sense of "that makes complete" is from 1650s.
crozier (n.) Look up crozier at
late 13c., from Old French crocier, from Medieval Latin crociarius "bearer of a cross," from crocia "cross;" also from Old French croisier "one who bears or has to do with a cross" (see cross (n.)). The two words merged in Middle English. Technically, "the bearer of a bishop's pastoral staff;" erroneously applied to the staff itself since 1733.
cru (n.) Look up cru at
from French cru "vineyard," literally "growth" (16c.), from Old French crois (12c.; Modern French croît), from croiss-, stem of croistre "growth, augment, increase," ultimately from Latin crescere "come forth, spring up, grow, thrive" (see crescent).
crucial (adj.) Look up crucial at
1706, "cross-shaped," from French crucial, a medical term for ligaments of the knee (which cross each other), from Latin crux (genitive crucis) "cross" (see cross (n.)). The meaning "decisive, critical" (1830) is extended from a logical term, Instantias Crucis, adopted by Francis Bacon (1620); the notion is of cross fingerboard signposts at forking roads, thus a requirement to choose.
cruciate (adj.) Look up cruciate at
"cross-shaped," from Modern Latin cruciatus, from Latin crux (genitive crucis) "cross" (see cross (n.)). Obsolete meaning "tormented" is 1530s, from Latin cruciat-, past participle stem of cruciare "cause pain or anguish to," literally "crucify," from crux.
crucible (n.) Look up crucible at
early 15c., from Medieval Latin crucibulum "melting pot for metals," originally "night lamp." First element might be Middle High German kruse "earthen pot." Or perhaps it is from Latin crux on some fancied resemblance to a cross. Used of any severe test or trial since 1640s.
cruciferous (adj.) Look up cruciferous at
1650s, from Late Latin crucifer "cross-bearing," from Latin crux (genitive crucis) "stake, cross" (see cross (n.)). Originally in literal senses; botanical use (in reference to a symmetrical arrangement of four petals) is from 1851.
crucifix (n.) Look up crucifix at
early 13c., from Old French crucefix (12c., Modern French crucifix), from Latin cruci fixus "(one) fixed to the cross" (see crucify).
crucifixion (n.) Look up crucifixion at
early 15c., from Late Latin crucifixionem (nominative crucifixio), noun of action from past participle stem of crucifigere "kill by crucifixion; fasten to a cross" (see crucify).
cruciform (adj.) Look up cruciform at
1660s, from Modern Latin cruciformis, from Latin crux (genitive crucis) "stake, cross" (see cross (n.)) + forma "form" (see form (n.)).
crucify (v.) Look up crucify at
c. 1300, from Old French crucifer (12c., Modern French crucifier), from Vulgar Latin *crucificare, from Late Latin crucifigere "to fasten to a cross," from cruci, dative of Latin crux "cross" (see cross (n.)) + figere "fasten" (see fix (v.)). An ancient mode of capital punishment considered especially ignominious by the Romans. Figurative sense of "to torment" is 1620s. Related: Crucified; crucifying.
cruciverbalist (n.) Look up cruciverbalist at
"maker of crossword puzzles," by 1990, coined in English from Latin cruci-, comb. form of crux "cross" (see cross (n.)) + verbum "word" (see verb).
crud (n.) Look up crud at
"nonsense, rubbish," 1940, U.S. slang; originally 1920s army and college student slang for "venereal disease." Said to be a metathesis variant of curd, which actually makes it an unconscious return to the original Middle English form of that word (see curd). As G.I. name for "disease of any and every sort" it is attested from 1945.
crude (adj.) Look up crude at
late 14c., "in a raw state," from Latin crudus "rough; not cooked, raw, bloody," from PIE *krue-do-, from PIE *kreue- (1) "raw flesh" (see raw). Meaning "lacking grace" is first attested 1640s. Related: Crudely; crudeness. Crude oil is from 1865.
crudites (n.) Look up crudites at
1960, from French crudités, literally "raw things" (see crudity).
crudity (n.) Look up crudity at
early 14c., from Middle French crudité (14c.) and directly from Latin cruditatem (nominative cruditas), from crudus (see crude).