extortionist (n.) Look up extortionist at Dictionary.com
1824, from extortion + -ist. Earlier in the same sense were extorter (1590s), extortioner (late 14c.).
extra Look up extra at Dictionary.com
1650s as a stand-alone adjective; also used as an adverb and noun in 17c. (see extra-); modern usages -- including sense of "minor performer in a play" (1777) and "special edition of a newspaper" (1793) -- probably all are from shortenings of extraordinary, which in 18c. was used extensively as noun and adverb in places extra would serve today.
extra- Look up extra- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element meaning "outside; beyond the scope of; in addition to what is usual or expected," in classical Latin recorded only in extraordinarius, but more used in Medieval Latin and modern formations; it represents Latin extra (adv.) "on the outside, without, except," the old fem. ablative singular of exterus "outward, outside," comparative of ex "out of" (see ex-).
extra-curricular (adj.) Look up extra-curricular at Dictionary.com
also extracurricular, 1911, from extra- + curricular. As a noun by 1957.
extra-special (adj.) Look up extra-special at Dictionary.com
1841, from extra- + special (adj.). Originally of legislative sessions, later (1880s) of certain editions of daily newspapers.
extract (v.) Look up extract at Dictionary.com
late 15c., from Latin extractus, past participle of extrahere "draw out," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + trahere "to draw" (see tract (n.1)). Related: Extracted; extracting.
extract (n.) Look up extract at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "digest or summary of something which has been written at greater length," from Late Latin extractum, noun use of neuter of extractus, past participle of extrahere "to draw out" (see extract (v.)). Physical sense of "that which is extracted," especially "something drawn from a substance by distillation or other chemical process" is from 1580s.
extraction (n.) Look up extraction at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "process of withdrawing or obtaining" (something, from something else), from Old French estraction "extraction, origin" (12c.) or directly from Medieval Latin extractionem (nominative extractio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin extrahere "to draw out" (see extract (v.)). Meaning "that which is extracted" is from 1590s. Meaning "descent, lineage" is from late 15c.
extradite (v.) Look up extradite at Dictionary.com
1864, back-formation from extradition. Related: Extradited; extraditing; extraditable.
extradition (n.) Look up extradition at Dictionary.com
1833, from French extradition (18c.), apparently a coinage of Voltaire's, from Latin ex "out" (see ex-) + traditionem (nominative traditio) "a delivering up, handing over," noun of action from tradere "to hand over" (see tradition).
This word might be adopted in our language with advantage, as we have none which conveys the same meaning. Extradition signifies the delivering up of criminals who may have sought refuge in any country, to the government whose subjects they are, on a claim being made to this effect. [from a footnote to the word extradition in the translation of "Memoirs of Marshal Ney" published in London in 1833]
extrajudicial (adj.) Look up extrajudicial at Dictionary.com
also extra-judicial, 1580s (implied in extrajudicially); see extra- + judicial.
extramarital (adj.) Look up extramarital at Dictionary.com
also extra-marital, by 1844, from extra- + marital.
extramural (adj.) Look up extramural at Dictionary.com
1854, from extra- + ending from intermural.
extraneous (adj.) Look up extraneous at Dictionary.com
1630s, from Latin extraneus "external, strange," literally "that is without, from without" (as a noun, "a stranger"), from extra "outside of" (see extra-). A doublet of strange. Related: Extraneously.
extraordinaire (adj.) Look up extraordinaire at Dictionary.com
1940, from French extraordinaire (14c.), literally "extraordinary, unusual, out of the ordinary," but used colloquially as a superlative; see extraordinary, which represents an older borrowing of the same word.
extraordinary (adj.) Look up extraordinary at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Latin extraordinarius "out of the common order," from extra ordinem "out of order," especially the usual order, from extra "out" (see extra-) + ordinem, accusative of ordo "order" (see order (n.)). Related: Extraordinarily; extraordinariness.
extrapolate (v.) Look up extrapolate at Dictionary.com
1862 (in a Harvard observatory account of the comet of 1858), from extra- + ending from interpolate. Said in early references to be a characteristic word of Sir George Airy (1801-1892), English mathematician and astronomer. Related: Extrapolated; extrapolating.
extrapolation (n.) Look up extrapolation at Dictionary.com
1867, noun of action from extrapolate by analogy of interpolation; original sense was "an inserting of intermediate terms in a mathematical series." Transferred sense of "drawing of a conclusion about the future based on present tendencies" is from 1889.
extrasensory (adj.) Look up extrasensory at Dictionary.com
also extra-sensory, 1934, coined as part of extra-sensory perception in J.B. Rhine's work, from extra- + sensory. Extrasensible (1874) was used earlier in reference to "that which is inaccessible to the senses."
extraspection (n.) Look up extraspection at Dictionary.com
"outward observation," 1887, from extra- + ending from introspection.
extraterrestrial (adj.) Look up extraterrestrial at Dictionary.com
also extra-terrestrial, 1812, from extra- + terrestrial. As a noun from 1956.
extraterritoriality (n.) Look up extraterritoriality at Dictionary.com
also extra-territoriality, "privilege customarily extended to diplomats abroad of enjoying such rights and privileges as belong to them at home," 1803, from extraterritorial (from extra- + territorial) + -ity. Same as Exterritoriality.
extravagance (n.) Look up extravagance at Dictionary.com
1640s, "an extravagant act," from French extravagance, from Late Latin extravagantem (see extravagant). Specifically of wasteful spending from 1727. Meaning "quality of being extravagant" is from 1670s. Extravagancy, "a wandering," especially "a wandering from the usual course," is attested from c. 1600, now rare.
extravagant (adj.) Look up extravagant at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Medieval Latin extravagantem (nominative extravagans), originally a word in Canon Law for uncodified papal decrees, present participle of extravagari "wander outside or beyond," from Latin extra "outside of" (see extra-) + vagari "wander, roam" (see vague). Extended sense of "excessive, extreme, exceeding reasonable limits" first recorded 1590s, probably via French; that of "wasteful, lavish, exceeding prudence in expenditure" is from 1711. Related: Extravagantly. Wordsworth ("Prelude") used extravagate (v.).
extravaganza (n.) Look up extravaganza at Dictionary.com
1754 in reference to peculiar behavior, 1794 of a fantastic type of performance or writing, from Italian extravaganza, literally "an extravagance," from estravagante, from Medieval Latin extravagantem (see extravagant). Related: Extravaganzist.
extravasation (n.) Look up extravasation at Dictionary.com
"escape of fluid into the tissues after a rupture," 1670s, from Latin extra "outside" (see extra-) + form derived from vas "vessel" (see vas (n.)). Related: Extravasate (1660s).
extraversion (n.) Look up extraversion at Dictionary.com
1690s, "a turning out," from Medieval Latin extraversionem, from extra "outward" (see extra-) + versionem (see version). Psychological sense is from 1915; see extraverted.
extraverted (adj.) Look up extraverted at Dictionary.com
in modern psychology, 1915, a variant of extroverted (see extrovert). Related: Extravert (n.), for which also see extrovert. There was a verb extravert in mid- to late 17c. meaning "to turn outward so as to be visible," from Latin extra "outward" + vertere "to turn."
extreme (adj.) Look up extreme at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "outermost, farthest;" also "utter, total, in greatest degree" (opposed to moderate), from Old French extreme (13c.), from Latin extremus "outermost, utmost, farthest, last; the last part; extremity, boundary; highest or greatest degree," superlative of exterus (see exterior). In English as in Latin, not always felt as a superlative, hence more extreme, most extreme (which were condemned by Johnson). Extreme unction preserves the otherwise extinct sense of "last, latest" (15c.).
extreme (n.) Look up extreme at Dictionary.com
1540s, "utmost point of a thing," from extreme (adj.); originally of the end of life (compare Latin in extremis in reference to the "last stages of life"). Phrase in the extreme "in an extreme degree" attested from c. 1600. Hence extremes "extremities, opposite ends of anything" (1550s); also "extreme measures" (1709).
extremely (adv.) Look up extremely at Dictionary.com
1530s, from extreme + -ly (2). Originally "with great severity," later more loosely, "in extreme degree" (1570s).
extremeness (n.) Look up extremeness at Dictionary.com
1520s; see extreme (adj.) + -ness.
extremism (n.) Look up extremism at Dictionary.com
"disposition to go to extremes in doctrine or practice," 1848, from extreme + -ism.
I would remind you that extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice! And let me remind you also that moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue. [Barry Goldwater (1909-1998), acceptance speech as Republican candidate for President, 1963]
extremist (n.) Look up extremist at Dictionary.com
"one who goes to extremes, a supporter of extreme doctrines," 1840, from extreme + -ist.
extremities (n.) Look up extremities at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "hands and feet, uttermost parts of the body," plural of extremity. Meaning "a person's last moments" is from c. 1600.
extremity (n.) Look up extremity at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "one of two things at the extreme ends of a scale," from Old French estremite (13c.), from Latin extremitatem (nominative extremitas) "the end of a thing," from extremus "outermost;" see extreme (adj.), the etymological sense of which is better preserved in this word. Meaning "utmost point or end" is from c. 1400; meaning "limb or organ of locomotion, appendage" is from early 15c. (compare extremities). Meaning "highest degree" of anything is early 15c. Related: Extremital.
extricable (adj.) Look up extricable at Dictionary.com
1620s, from extricate + -able. Related: Extricably.
extricate (v.) Look up extricate at Dictionary.com
1610s, from Latin extricatus, past participle of extricare "disentangle," figuratively "clear up, unravel," perhaps from ex- "out of" + tricae (plural) "perplexities, hindrances," which is of unknown origin. Related: Extricated; extricating.
extrication (n.) Look up extrication at Dictionary.com
1640s, noun of action from extricate (v.).
extrinsic (adj.) Look up extrinsic at Dictionary.com
"not of the essence or inner nature of a thing," 1540s, from French extrinsèque, from Late Latin extrinsecus (adj.) "outer," from Latin extrinsecus (adv.) "outwardly, on the outside; from without, from abroad," from exter "outside" + in, suffix of locality, + secus "beside, alongside," originally "following," from PIE *sekw-os "following," from root *sekw- (1) "to follow" (see sequel).
extro- Look up extro- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element meaning "outwards," a variant of extra- by influence of intro-.
extroversion (n.) Look up extroversion at Dictionary.com
mid-17c., "condition of being turned inside out," noun of action from obsolete verb extrovert (v.) "to turn inside out," from extro- + Latin vertere (see versus). Earliest as a word in mysticism; modern use in psychology attested by 1920.
extrovert (n.) Look up extrovert at Dictionary.com
1916, extravert (spelled with -o- after 1918, by influence of introvert), from German Extravert, from extra "outside" (see extra-) + Latin vertere "to turn" (see versus). Used (with introvert) in English by doctors and scientists in various literal senses since 1600s, but popularized in a psychological sense early 20c. by Carl Jung. Related: Extroverted.
extrude (v.) Look up extrude at Dictionary.com
1560s, from Latin extrudere "to thrust out, drive away" (see extrusion). Related: Extruded; extruding.
extrusion (n.) Look up extrusion at Dictionary.com
1530s, formed as a noun of action from past participle stem of extrudere, from ex- "out" (see ex-) + trudere "to thrust, push," from PIE *treud- "to press, push, squeeze" (see threat).
extrusive (adj.) Look up extrusive at Dictionary.com
1816, from Latin extrus-, past participle stem of extrudere "thrust out; drive away" (see extrusion) + -ive. Related: Extrusively.
exuberance (n.) Look up exuberance at Dictionary.com
1630s, "an overflowing," from French exubérance (16c.), from Late Latin exuberantia "superabundance," noun of state from exuberare "be abundant, grow luxuriously" (see exuberant). Usually figurative in English, especially of joy, happiness, etc. Exuberancy attested from 1610s.
exuberant (adj.) Look up exuberant at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from Middle French exubérant and directly from Latin exuberantem (nominative exuberans) "overabundance," present participle of exuberare "be abundant, grow luxuriously," from ex- "thoroughly" (see ex-) + uberare "be fruitful," related to uber "udder," from PIE root *eue-dh-r- (see udder). Related: Exuberantly; exuberate; exuberating.
exudation (n.) Look up exudation at Dictionary.com
1610s, "process of oozing out;" 1620s, "that which is exuded," from Late Latin exudationem/exsudationem, noun of action from neuter past participle of exudere/exsudere "to ooze, exude" (see exude). Related: Exudate (n.).
exude (v.) Look up exude at Dictionary.com
1570s (intransitive), from Latin exudare/exsudare "ooze out like sweat," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + sudare "to sweat," from sudor "sweat" (see sweat (v.)). Transitive sense from 1755. Related: Exuded; exudes; exuding.