expresso (n.) Look up expresso at
variant of espresso.
expressway (n.) Look up expressway at
by 1945, American English, from express (adj.) + way (n.). Express highway is recorded by 1938.
exprobration (n.) Look up exprobration at
1520s, "act of upbraiding;" 1540s, "a reproachful utterance," from Latin exprobrationem (nominative exprobratio), noun of action from past participle stem of exprobrare "to make a matter of reproach," from ex- (see ex-) + probrum "shameful deed" (see opprobrious).
expropriate (v.) Look up expropriate at
1610s, back-formation from expropriation, or from earlier adjective (mid-15c.), or from Medieval Latin expropriatus, past participle of expropriare "to deprive of one's own." Related: Expropriated; expropriating.
expropriation (n.) Look up expropriation at
mid-15c., "renunciation of worldly goods," from Medieval Latin expropriationem (nominative expropriatio), noun of action from past participle stem of Late Latin expropriare "deprive of property," from ex- "away from" (see ex-) + propriare "to appropriate" (see appropriate (v.)). Sense of "a taking of someone's property," especially for public use, is from 1848; as Weekley puts it, "Current sense of organized theft appears to have arisen among Ger. socialists."
expugn (v.) Look up expugn at
early 15c., "eradicate, exterminate," also "conquer, capture by fighting," from Old French expugner, from Latin expugnare "to take by assault, storm, capture" (source also of Spanish expugnar, Italian espugnare), from ex- (see ex-) + pugnare "to fight" (see pugnacious). Related: Expugned; expugnable.
expulsion (n.) Look up expulsion at
c. 1400, from Old French expulsion or directly from Latin expulsionem (nominative expulsio), noun of action from past participle stem of expellere "drive out" (see expel).
expunction (n.) Look up expunction at
c. 1600, from Latin expunctionem (nominative expunctio), noun of action from past participle stem of expungere "prick out, blot out, mark for deletion" (see expunge).
expunge (v.) Look up expunge at
c. 1600, from Latin expungere "prick out, blot out, mark (a name on a list) for deletion" by pricking dots above or below it, literally "prick out," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + pungere "to prick, pierce," related to pugnus "a fist" (see pugnacious). According to OED, taken by early lexicographers in English to "denote actual obliteration by pricking;" it adds that the sense probably was influenced by sponge (v.). Related: Expunged; expunging; expungible.
expurgate (v.) Look up expurgate at
1620s, "to purge" (in anatomy), back-formation from expurgation or from Latin expurgatus, past participle of expurgare "to cleanse out, purge, purify." Related: Expurgated; expurgating. The earlier verb was simply expurge (late 15c.), from Middle French expurger. Meaning "remove (something offensive or erroneous) from" is from 1670s.
expurgation (n.) Look up expurgation at
early 15c., "a cleansing from impurity," from Latin expurgationem (nominative expurgatio), noun of action from past participle stem of expurgare "to cleanse out, purge, purify; clear from censure, vindicate, justify," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + purgare "to purge" (see purge (v.)). Sense of "a removal of objectionable passages from a literary work" first recorded in English 1610s. Related: Expurgatory.
exquisite (adj.) Look up exquisite at
early 15c., "carefully selected," from Latin exquisitus "choice," literally "carefully sought out," from past participle stem of exquirere "search out thoroughly," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + quaerere "to seek" (see query (v.)).

Originally in English of any thing (good or bad, torture and diseases as well as art) brought to a highly wrought condition, sometimes shading into disapproval. The main modern meaning, "of consummate and delightful excellence" is first attested 1579, in Lyly's "Euphues." Related: Exquisitely; exquisiteness. The noun meaning "a dandy, fop" is from 1819. Bailey's Dictionary (1727) has exquisitous "not natural, but procured by art."
exsanguinate (v.) Look up exsanguinate at
"render bloodless," 1849, from Latin exsanguinatus "bloodless," as if from a past participle of *exsanguinare, from ex- "out" (see ex-) + sanguinem (nominative sanguis) "blood" (see sanguinary). Related: Exsanguinated; exsanguinating; exsanguination. As an adjective, exsanguine "bloodless" is attested from mid-17c. in literal and figurative use.
exsert (v.) Look up exsert at
"to thrust forth, protrude," 1660s, biologists' variant of exert (q.v.) based on the original Latin form. Also as an adjective, "projecting beyond the surrounding parts." Related: Exsertion.
extant (adj.) Look up extant at
1540s, "standing out above a surface," from Latin extantem (nominative extans), present participle of extare "stand out, be visible, exist," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + stare "to stand," from PIE root *stā- "to stand" (see stet). Sense of "in existence" attested in English by 1560s. Related: Extance; extancy, both 17c., both obsolete.
extemporaneous (adj.) Look up extemporaneous at
"made, done, procured, or furnished 'at the time,'" hence "unpremeditated," 1650s, from Medieval Latin extemporaneus, from Latin ex tempore (see extempore). Earlier was extemporal (1560s); extemporanean (1620s). Related: Extemporaneously; extemporaneousness.
extemporary (adj.) Look up extemporary at
c. 1600, from extempore + -ary.
extempore (adv.) Look up extempore at
1550s, from Latin phrase ex tempore "offhand, in accordance with (the needs of) the moment," literally "out of time," from ex "out of" (see ex-) + tempore, ablative of tempus (genitive temporis) "time" (see temporal). Of speaking, strictly "without preparation, without time to prepare," but now often with a sense merely of "without notes or a teleprompter." As an adjective and noun from 1630s.
extemporize (v.) Look up extemporize at
1640s (implied in extemporizing), "to speak ex tempore," from extempore + -ize. Related: Extemporized.
extend (v.) Look up extend at
early 14c., "to value, assess," from Anglo-French estendre (late 13c.), Old French estendre "stretch out, extend, increase," transitive and intransitive (Modern French étendre), from Latin extendere "stretch out, spread out; increase, enlarge, prolong, continue," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + tendere "to stretch" (see tenet).

Original sense in English is obsolete. From late 14c. as "lengthen or extend in time," also "straighten" (an arm, wing. etc.). Meaning "make longer and/or broader in space" is from early 15c., as is intransitive sense of "cover an area, have a certain extent in space;" sense of "expand, grow distended" is from 1753. Related: Extended; extending.
extended (adj.) Look up extended at
mid-15c., "occupying time, made longer," past participle adjective from extend (v.). Meaning "stretched out" in space is from 1550s; extended-play (adj.), in reference to recordings (especially 7-inch, 45 rpm vinyl records) is from 1953; in reference to pinball games by 1943. Extended family (n.) in sociology recorded from 1942.
A challenging question was asked RCA engineers and scientists in 1951. How can we increase the playing time of a 7-inch record, without using a larger disc? Sixteen months of research gave the answer, "45 EP"--Extended Play. [Radio Corporation of America magazine advertisement, May 1953]
extender (n.) Look up extender at
1610s, agent noun from extend (v.). Middle English had extendour "surveyor, assessor."
extensible (n.) Look up extensible at
1610s, from French extensible, from stem of Latin extendere (see extend). Earlier was extendible (late 15c.).
extension (n.) Look up extension at
c. 1400, "swelling, bulging," from Latin extensionem/extentionem (nominative extensio/extentio) "a stretching out, extension," noun of action from past participle stem of extendere (see extend). In a concrete sense, "extended portion of something" (a railroad, etc.), from 1852. Telephone sense is from 1906.
extensive (adj.) Look up extensive at
"vast, far-reaching;" c. 1600 of immaterial, c. 1700 of material things; from Late Latin extensivus, from extens-, past participle stem of Latin extendere "to stretch out, spread" (see extend). Earlier in a medical sense, "characterized by swelling" (early 15c.). Related: Extensively; extensiveness.
extensor (n.) Look up extensor at
"muscle which serves to straighten or extend any part of the body," 1713, short for medical Latin musculus extensor, from Late Latin extensor "stretcher," agent noun from Latin extendere "spread out, spread" (see extend).
extent (n.) Look up extent at
early 14c., from Anglo-French extente, estente "extent, extension;" in law, "valuation of land, stretch of land," from fem. past participle of Old French extendre "extend," from Latin extendere "to spread out, spread" (see extend). Meaning "degree to which something extends" is from 1590s.
extenuate (v.) Look up extenuate at
1520s, from Latin extenuatus, past participle of extenuare "lessen, make small, reduce, diminish, detract from," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + tenuare "make thin," from tenuis "thin" (see tenet). Used over the years in a variety of literal and figurative senses in English. Related: Extenuated; extenuating. Extenuating circumstances (1660s) are those which lessen the magnitude of guilt (opposed to aggravating).
extenuation (n.) Look up extenuation at
early 15c., from Latin extenuationem (nominative extenuatio) "a lessening, diminution," noun of action from past participle stem of extenuare "lessen, reduce, diminish" (see extenuate).
exterior (adj.) Look up exterior at
1520s, from Latin exterior "outward, outer, exterior," comparative of exterus "on the outside, outward, outer, of another country, foreign," itself a comparative of ex "out of" (see ex-). As a noun, "outer surface or aspect" from 1590s.
exterminate (v.) Look up exterminate at
1540s, "drive away," from Latin exterminatus, past participle of exterminare "drive out, expel, put aside, drive beyond boundaries," also, in Late Latin "destroy," from phrase ex termine "beyond the boundary," from ex- "out of" (see ex-) + termine, ablative of termen "boundary, limit, end" (see terminus).

Meaning "destroy utterly" is from 1640s in English, a sense found in equivalent words in French and in the Vulgate; earlier in this sense was extermine (mid-15c.). Related: Exterminated; exterminating.
extermination (n.) Look up extermination at
mid-15c., "repulsion;" 1540s, "utter destruction, eradication," from Middle French extermination and directly from Latin exterminationem (nominative exterminatio) "ejection, banishment," noun of action from past participle stem of exterminare (see exterminate).
exterminator (n.) Look up exterminator at
c. 1400, "an angel who expells (people from a country)," from Late Latin exterminator, from past participle stem of Latin exterminare (see exterminate). As a substance for ridding a place of rats, etc., by 1848; as a person whose job it is to do this, by 1938.
extern (n.) Look up extern at
"outsider," c. 1600, from Middle French externe "outer, outward;" as a noun, "a day-scholar," from Latin externus "outside," also used as a noun (see external). As an adjective in English from 1530s.
external (adj.) Look up external at
early 15c., from Middle French externe or directly from Latin externus "outside, outward" (from exterus; see exterior) + -al (1). This version won out over exterial. Related: Externally.
externality (n.) Look up externality at
1670s, "state of being external," from external + -ity. From 1839 as "that which is external." From 1833 as "undue regard for externals."
externalization (n.) Look up externalization at
1803; see external + -ization.
externalize (v.) Look up externalize at
1846, from external + -ize. Related: Externalized; externalizing.
Self-government begins with a reverential recognition of a supreme law: its process is a constant endeavor to render that law objective, real, operative--to externalize it, if we may use the term. ["American Review," July, 1846]
extinct (adj.) Look up extinct at
early 15c., "extinguished, quenched," from Latin extinctus/exstinctus, past participle of extinguere/exstinguere "to put out, quench; go out, die out; kill, destroy" (see extinguish). Originally of fires; in reference to the condition of a family or a hereditary title that has "died out," from 1580s; of species by 1690s. Shakespeare uses it as a verb. Compare extinction.
extinction (n.) Look up extinction at
early 15c., "annihilation," from Latin extinctionem/exstinctionem (nominative extinctio/exstinctio) "extinction, annihilation," noun of action from past participle stem of extinguere/exstinguere "quench, wipe out" (see extinguish). Originally of fires, lights; figurative use, the wiping out of a material thing (a debt, a person, a family, etc.) from early 17c.; of species by 1784.
extinguish (v.) Look up extinguish at
1540s, from Latin extinguere/exstinguere "quench, put out (what is burning), wipe out, obliterate," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + stinguere "quench," apparently an evolved sense from PIE *steig- "to prick, stick, pierce" (see stick (v.)). But see distinguish (v.). Related: Extinguished; extinguishing.
extinguishable (adj.) Look up extinguishable at
c. 1500; see extinguish + -able.
extinguisher (n.) Look up extinguisher at
1550s, agent noun from extinguish. As a mechanical device for putting out fires, from 1887.
extirpate (v.) Look up extirpate at
"root up, root out," 1530s, usually figurative, from Latin extirpatus/exstirpatus, past participle of extirpare/exstirpare "root out, eradicate, pull up by the roots" (see extirpation). Related: Extirpated; extirpating; extirpable.
extirpation (n.) Look up extirpation at
early 15c., "removal;" 1520s, "rooting out, eradication," from Latin extirpationem/exstirpationem (nominative extirpatio/exstirpatio), noun of action from past participle stem of extirpare/exstirpare "root out," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + stirps (genitive stirpis) "a root, stock of a tree."
extol (v.) Look up extol at
also extoll, c. 1400, "to lift up," from Latin extollere "to place on high, raise, elevate," figuratively "to exalt, praise," from ex- "up" (see ex-) + tollere "to raise," from PIE *tele- "to bear, carry," "with derivatives referring to measured weights and thence money and payment" [Watkins].

Cognates include Greek talantos "bearing, suffering," tolman "to carry, bear," telamon "broad strap for bearing something," talenton "a balance, pair of scales," Atlas "the 'Bearer' of Heaven;" Lithuanian tiltas "bridge;" Sanskrit tula "balance," tulayati "lifts up, weighs;" Latin tolerare "to bear, support," latus "borne;" Old English þolian "to endure;" Armenian tolum "I allow." Figurative sense of "praise highly" in English is first attested c. 1500. Related: Extolled; extolling.
extoll Look up extoll at
variant of extol.
extort (v.) Look up extort at
1520s (as a past participle adj. from early 15c.), "obtain by force or compulsion; wrest away by oppressive means," from Latin extortus, past participle of extorquere "obtain by force," literally "wrench out" (see extortion). Related: Extorted; extorting.
extortion (n.) Look up extortion at
c. 1300, from Latin extortionem (nominative extortio) "a twisting out, extorting," noun of action from past participle stem of extorquere "wrench out, wrest away, to obtain by force," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + torquere "to twist" (see torque (n.)).
extortionate (adj.) Look up extortionate at
1711, from extortion + -ate. Extortious is from c. 1600.