anthropocentrism (n.) Look up anthropocentrism at
1897; see anthropocentric + -ism.
anthropogenic (adj.) Look up anthropogenic at
1889, from anthropogeny + -ic.
anthropogeny (n.) Look up anthropogeny at
1833, from anthropo- + geny.
anthropoid (adj.) Look up anthropoid at
"manlike," 1835, from Greek anthropoeides "like a man, resembling a man; in human form;" see anthropo- + -oid. As a noun, attested from 1832 (the Greek noun in this sense was anthroparion).
anthropolatry (n.) Look up anthropolatry at
"worship of a human being," 1650s, from Greek anthropos (see anthropo-) + latreia "hired labor, service, worship" (see -latry).
anthropological (adj.) Look up anthropological at
1825, from anthropology + -ical. Related: Anthropologically.
anthropologist (n.) Look up anthropologist at
1798, from anthropology + -ist.
anthropology (n.) Look up anthropology at
"science of the natural history of man," 1590s, originally especially of the relation between physiology and psychology, from Modern Latin anthropologia or coined independently in English from anthropo- + -logy. In Aristotle, anthropologos is used literally, as "speaking of man."
anthropometric (adj.) Look up anthropometric at
1871, based on French anthropométrique, from anthropometry "measurement of the human body" + -ic.
anthropometry (n.) Look up anthropometry at
1839, "acquaintance with the dimensions of the parts of the human body," from anthropo- + -metry. Perhaps modeled on French anthropometrie.
anthropomorphic (adj.) Look up anthropomorphic at
1806, from anthropomorphous + -ic. Originally in reference to regarding God or gods as having human form and human characteristics; of animals and other things from 1858; the sect of the Antropomorfites is mentioned in English from mid-15c. (see anthropomorphite).
anthropomorphism (n.) Look up anthropomorphism at
1753, "attributing of human qualities to a deity;" see anthropomorphic + -ism. Of other non-human things, from 1858. Related: Anthropomorphist (1610s).
anthropomorphite (n.) Look up anthropomorphite at
mid-15c.; see anthropomorphite + -ist.
The sect of Antropomorfitis, whiche helden that God in his godhede hath hondis and feet and othere suche membris. [Reginald Pecock, "The Repressor of Over Much Blaming of the Clergy," 1449]
Related: Anthropomorphitism (1660s).
anthropomorphize (v.) Look up anthropomorphize at
1834; see anthropomorphic + -ize. Related: Anthropomorphized; anthopomorphizing.
anthropomorphous (adj.) Look up anthropomorphous at
1753, Englishing of Late Latin anthropomorphus "having human form," from Greek anthropomorphos, from anthropos "human being" (see anthropo-) + morphe "form" (see morphine).
anthropopathy (n.) Look up anthropopathy at
"ascribing of human feelings to god," 1640s, from Greek anthropopatheia "humanity," literally "human feeling," from anthropo- + -patheia, comb. form of pathos "suffering, disease, feeling" (see pathos). Related: Anthropopathic; anthropopathically.
anthropophagy (n.) Look up anthropophagy at
"cannibalism," 1630s, from French anthropophagie, from Greek anthropophagia "an eating of men," from anthropophagos "man-eating; a man-eater," from anthropo- + stem of phagein "to eat" (see -phagous). Related: Anthropophagic; anthropophagous; anthropophagism.
anti (n.) Look up anti at
as a stand-alone word, attested from 1788, originally in reference to the anti-federalists in U.S. politics (in the 1830s, of the Anti-Masonic party); as an adjective, from 1857. From anti- in various usages.
anti- Look up anti- at
word-forming element meaning "against, opposed to, opposite of, instead," from Old French anti- and directly from Latin anti-, from Greek anti "against, opposite, instead of," also used as a prefix, from PIE *anti- "against," also "in front of" (see ante). It appears in some words in Middle English but was not commonly used in word formations until modern times.
anti-aircraft (adj.) Look up anti-aircraft at
also antiaircraft, 1914, from anti- + aircraft.
Anti-American (adj.) Look up Anti-American at
also antiamerican, 1788 (n.), in reference to British parliamentary policies, from anti- + American. As an adjective by 1838. Related: Anti-Americanism "opposition to what is distinctly American," 1844.
anti-bacterial (adj.) Look up anti-bacterial at
also antibacterial, 1875, from anti- + bacterial.
anti-choice (adj.) Look up anti-choice at
also antichoice, 1978; see pro-life.
anti-communist (adj.) Look up anti-communist at
1919, from anti- + communist.
anti-freeze (n.) Look up anti-freeze at
also antifreeze, 1935, from use as an adjective (1913); from anti- + freeze (v.).
anti-imperialist (adj.) Look up anti-imperialist at
1898, American English, in debates about the Spanish-American War, from anti- + imperialist. Related: Anti-imperialism.
anti-intellectual Look up anti-intellectual at
1821 (adj.), from anti- + intellectual. As a noun meaning "an anti-intellectual person" from 1913.
anti-intellectualism (n.) Look up anti-intellectualism at
1904, from anti- + intellectualism; or in some cases from anti-intellectual + -ism.
anti-macassar (n.) Look up anti-macassar at
also antimacassar, 1852, from anti- + macassar oil, proprietary name of a hair tonic advertised as imported from the district of Macassar on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. The cloth was laid to protect chair and sofa fabric from people leaning their oily heads back against it.
anti-Semite (n.) Look up anti-Semite at
1881, see anti-Semitism.
anti-Semitic (adj.) Look up anti-Semitic at
1881, see anti-Semitism.
anti-Semitism (n.) Look up anti-Semitism at
also antisemitism, 1881, from German Antisemitismus, first used by Wilhelm Marr (1819-1904) German radical, nationalist and race-agitator, who founded the Antisemiten-Liga in 1879; see anti- + Semite.

Not etymologically restricted to anti-Jewish theories, actions, or policies, but almost always used in this sense. Those who object to the inaccuracy of the term might try Hermann Adler's Judaeophobia (1881). Anti-Semitic (also antisemitic) and anti-Semite (also antisemite) also are from 1881, like anti-Semitism they appear first in English in an article in the "Athenaeum" of Sept. 31, in reference to German literature. Jew-hatred is attested from 1881.
anti-social (adj.) Look up anti-social at
also antisocial, 1797, from anti- + social (adj.). First-attested use is in sense of "unsociable;" meaning "hostile to social order or norms" is from 1802.
anti-war (adj.) Look up anti-war at
also antiwar, 1857, from anti- + war (n.).
antibiotic (adj.) Look up antibiotic at
1894, "destructive to micro-organisms," from French antibiotique (c. 1889), from anti- "against" (see anti-) + biotique "of (microbial) life," from Late Latin bioticus "of life" (see biotic). As a noun, first recorded 1941 in works of U.S. microbiologist Selman Waksman (1888-1973), discoverer of streptomycin. Earlier the adjective was used in a sense "not from living organisms" in debates over the origins of certain fossils.
antibody (n.) Look up antibody at
"substance developed in blood as an antitoxin," 1901, a hybrid formed from anti- "against" + body. Probably a translation of German Antikörper, condensed from a phrase such as anti-toxischer Körper "anti-toxic body" (1891).
antic (n.) Look up antic at
1520s, "grotesque or comical gesture," from Italian antico "antique," from Latin antiquus "old" (see antique). Originally (like grotesque) a 16c. Italian word referring to the strange and fantastic representations on ancient murals unearthed around Rome (especially originally the Baths of Titus, rediscovered 16c.); later extended to "any bizarre thing or behavior," in which sense it first arrived in English. As an adjective in English from 1580s, "grotesque, bizarre."
antichrist (n.) Look up antichrist at
c. 1300, from Late Latin antichristus, from Greek antikhristos [I John ii:18], from anti- "against" (see anti-) + khristos (see Christ).
antichristian (adj.) Look up antichristian at
1530s, "pertaining to the antichrist," from antichrist + -ian; as "hostile or opposed to to Christianity or Christians" (also anti-Christian), 1580s, from anti- + Christian (adj.).
anticipate (v.) Look up anticipate at
1530s, "to cause to happen sooner," a back-formation from anticipation, or else from Latin anticipatus, past participle of anticipare "take (care of) ahead of time," literally "taking into possession beforehand," from ante "before" (see ante) + capere "to take" (see capable).

Later "to be aware of (something) coming at a future time" (1640s). Used in the sense of "expect, look forward to" since 1749, but anticipate has an element of "prepare for, forestall" that should prevent its being used as a synonym for expect. Related: Anticipated; anticipating.
anticipation (n.) Look up anticipation at
late 14c., from Latin anticipationem (nominative anticipatio) "preconception, preconceived notion," noun of action from past participle stem of anticipare "take care of ahead of time" (see anticipate). Meaning "action of looking forward to" is from 1809.
anticipatory (adj.) Look up anticipatory at
1660s, from anticipate + -ory.
anticlimactic (adj.) Look up anticlimactic at
also anti-climactic, 1831; see anticlimax + -ic.
anticlimax (n.) Look up anticlimax at
"the addition of a particular which suddenly lowers the effect," 1701, from anti- + climax (n.).
anticline (n.) Look up anticline at
1867, earlier anticlinal (1849, by ellipsis from anticlinal fold), from anti- "against" + Greek klinein "to lean, slope" (see lean (v.)). Form assimilated to incline.
anticoagulant Look up anticoagulant at
1905, adjective and noun, from anti- + coagulant.
antics (n.) Look up antics at
"ludicrous behavior," 1520s; see antic.
anticyclone (n.) Look up anticyclone at
1863, coined by Francis Galton (1822-1911), English polymath, explorer, and meteorologist, from anti- + cyclone. Related: Anticyclonic.
antidepressant (n.) Look up antidepressant at
1876, from anti- + depressant.
antidisestablishmentarianism (n.) Look up antidisestablishmentarianism at
"opposition to disestablishment of the Church of England," 1838, said by Weekley to be first recorded in Gladstone's "Church and State," from dis- + establishment in the sense of "the ecclesiastical system established by law; the Church of England" (1731). Hence establishmentarianism "the principle of a state church" (1846) and disestablish (1590s) "to deprive (a church) of especial state patronage and support" (first used specifically of Christian churches in 1806), which are married in this word. Rarely used at all now except in examples of the longest words, amongst which it has been counted at least since 1901.