induration (n.) Look up induration at
late 14c., "a hardening or congealing" (of body parts, alchemical materials), from Old French induracion "hardness, obstinacy" (14c.) or directly from Medieval Latin indurationem (nominative induratio) "hardness (especially of the heart)," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin indurare "to make hard, harden" (see endure).
Indus Look up Indus at
river in Asia, from Sanskrit sindhu "river." The southern constellation, created 1603 by Bayer, represents "an Indian," not the river.
industrial (adj.) Look up industrial at
1774, "resulting from labor," from French industriel, from Medieval Latin industrialis, from Latin industria "diligence, activity" (see industry). There is an isolated earlier used in the same sense from 1580s, from Latin industria.

The main modern meaning "pertaining to the manufacture of commodities, connected with the application of industry to manufactures" is from 1830, from a sense in French.

Meaning "suitable for industrial use" is from 1904. As a style of dance music, attested from 1988. Industrial revolution was in use by 1840 to refer to what were then recent developments and changes in England and elsewhere.
industrialisation (n.) Look up industrialisation at
chiefly British English spelling of industrialization (q.v.); for spelling, see -ize.
industrialism (n.) Look up industrialism at
1831, from industrial + -ism. Probably modeled on French industrialisme (Saint-Simon, 1823).
industrialist (n.) Look up industrialist at
1846, from industrial + -ist. Perhaps modeled on French industrialiste (Saint-Simon, 1823). Earlier "one who makes a living by productive industry" (1837).
industrialization (n.) Look up industrialization at
1883, noun of action from industrialize (q.v.).
industrialize (v.) Look up industrialize at
1852, from industrial + -ize. Probably modeled on French industrialiser (1842). Related: Industrialized; industrializing.
industrious (adj.) Look up industrious at
1550s, "characterized by energy, effort, and attention; marked by industry," from Middle French industrieux (c. 1500) and directly from Late Latin industriosus, from Latin industria "diligence, activity" (see industry). Of persons, "given to industry, working diligently," 1590s. It retains the etymological sense of the Latin word while industrial serves in the modern senses. Related: Industriously; industriousness.
industry (n.) Look up industry at
late 15c., "cleverness, skill," from Old French industrie "activity; aptitude, experience" (14c.) or directly from Latin industria "diligence, activity, zeal," noun use of fem. of industrius "active, diligent," from early Latin indostruus "diligent," from indu "in, within" (see indigenous) + stem of struere "to build" (see structure (n.)). The meaning "habitual diligence, effort" is from 1530s; that of "systematic work" is from 1610s. The sense "a particular trade or manufacture" is first recorded 1560s.
indwelling (n.) Look up indwelling at
"act of residing," late 14c. (Wyclif's translation of Latin inhabitatio), present participle of obsolete indwell, from in (adv.) + dwell (v.). He also used indweller for Latin inhabitans and indwell (v.) for inhabitare.
inebriate (v.) Look up inebriate at
late 15c., from Latin inebriatus, past participle of inebriare "to make drunk," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + ebriare "make drunk," from ebrius "drunk," probably from PIE root *hegwh- "to drink." Related: Inebriated; inebriating. Also used in 19c. English were inebriacy (1842); inebriant, noun (1808) and adjective (1828); inebriety (1801); and inebrious (1711).
inebriated (adj.) Look up inebriated at
"drunken," c. 1600, past participle adjective from inebriate. The earlier adjective was inebriate (late 15c.).
inebriation (n.) Look up inebriation at
1520s, from Late Latin inebriationem (nominative inebriatio) "drunkenness," noun of action from past participle stem of inebriare "make drunk" (see inebriate).
ineconomy (n.) Look up ineconomy at
"waste of resources," 1881, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + economy (n.).
inedible (adj.) Look up inedible at
"unfit to eat," 1774, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + edible. Related: Inedibly; inedibility (1879).
inedita (n.) Look up inedita at
"unpublished writings," Modern Latin noun use of neuter plural of Latin ineditus, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + editus, past participle of edere "to bring forth, produce" (see edition).
ineducable (adj.) Look up ineducable at
"not capable of being instructed," 1858, from in- (1) "not" + educable. Related: Ineducably; ineducability (1871).
ineffability (n.) Look up ineffability at
"unspeakableness," 1620s, from ineffable + -ity.
ineffable (adj.) Look up ineffable at
late 14c., "beyond expression, too great for words, inexpressible," from Old French ineffable (14c.) or directly from Latin ineffabilis "unutterable," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + effabilis "speakable," from effari "utter," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + fari "to say, speak," from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say" (see fame (n.)). Meaning "that may not be spoken" is from 1590s. Plural noun ineffables was, for a time, a jocular euphemism for "trousers" (1823; see inexpressible). Related: Ineffably.
ineffaceable (adj.) Look up ineffaceable at
1804, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + effaceable (see efface). Perhaps modeled on French ineffaçable (16c.).
ineffectible (adj.) Look up ineffectible at
"that cannot be carried out, impracticable," 1803, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + effectible (see effect (v.)).
ineffective (adj.) Look up ineffective at
1650s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + effective. Related: Ineffectively; ineffectiveness (1744).
ineffectual (adj.) Look up ineffectual at
early 15c., from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + effectual. Related: Ineffectually; ineffectuality.
inefficacious (adj.) Look up inefficacious at
"not producing the desired effect," 1650s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + efficacious. Related: Inefficaciously; inefficaciousness (1640s).
inefficacy (n.) Look up inefficacy at
"want of force or virtue to produce the desired effect," 1610s, from Late Latin inefficacia, from inefficacem (nominative inefficax), from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + Latin efficax "powerful, effectual, efficient" (see efficacy).
inefficiency (n.) Look up inefficiency at
1749; see in- (1) "not, opposite of" + efficiency (n.).
inefficient (adj.) Look up inefficient at
1748, "not producing or incapable of producing the desired effect," from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + efficient. Related: Inefficiently.
inelastic (adj.) Look up inelastic at
1748, "not rebounding after a strain," from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + elastic (adj.). Figurative sense "rigid, unyielding" attested by 1867. Related: Inelasticity.
inelegance (n.) Look up inelegance at
1690s, from French inélégance (16c.) or directly from Late Latin inelegantia, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + Latin elegantia "taste, propriety, refinement" (see elegance).
inelegant (adj.) Look up inelegant at
c. 1500, from Middle French inélégant (15c.), from Latin inelegantem (nominative inelegans) "not elegant, not choice," also "without taste, without judgment," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + elegans (see elegant). Related: Inelegantly.
ineligible (adj.) Look up ineligible at
1763, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + eligible. Perhaps modeled on French inéligible. Related: Ineligibility.
ineluctable (adj.) Look up ineluctable at
"not to be escaped by struggling," 1620s, from French inéluctable (15c.) or directly from Latin ineluctabilis "unavoidable, inevitable," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + eluctabilis "that may be escaped from," from eluctari "to struggle out of," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + luctari "to struggle" (see reluctance).
inenarrable (adj.) Look up inenarrable at
"inexpressible, that cannot be told, indescribable," c. 1500, from Old French inenarrable (14c.) or directly from Latin inenarrabilis, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + enarrabilis "describable," from enarre "to narrate."
inept (adj.) Look up inept at
c. 1600, "not fit or suitable, inapt," also "absurd, foolish," from French inepte "incapable" (14c.) or directly from Latin ineptus "unsuitable, improper, impertinent; absurd, awkward, silly, tactless," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + aptus "apt" (see apt). Related: Ineptly; ineptness.
ineptitude (n.) Look up ineptitude at
1610s, from French ineptitude, from Latin ineptitudo, noun of quality from ineptus "unsuitable, absurd" (see inept).
inequable (adj.) Look up inequable at
"not uniform, changeable," 1716, from Latin inaequabilis "unequal," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + aequabilis "similar, equal; constant, not varying" (see equable). Related: Inequability (1580s).
inequal (adj.) Look up inequal at
late 14c., from Old French inequal (14c.), from Latin inaequalis "unequal," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + aequalis "equal" (see equal).
inequality (n.) Look up inequality at
early 15c., "difference of rank or dignity," from Old French inequalité (14c., Modern French inégalité) and directly from Medieval Latin inaequalitas, from Latin inaequalis "unequal, unlike, different (in size); changeable, inconstant," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + aequalis "equal" (see equal). In reference to magnitude, number, intensity, etc., from 1530s.
inequitable (adj.) Look up inequitable at
"unfair, unjust," 1660s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + equitable, which is ultimately from Latin aequus "even, just, equal." Related: Inequitably. The same formation in English has also meant "impassable on horses, unfit for riding over" (1620s), from Latin inequabilis, from equus "a horse" (see equine).
inequity (n.) Look up inequity at
"unfairness," 1550s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + equity. Formed from the same elements as iniquity, but done in English. Related: Inequities.
ineradicable (adj.) Look up ineradicable at
1794, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + eradicable (see eradicate). Related: Ineradicably.
inerrable (adj.) Look up inerrable at
"incapable of erring," 1610s, from Late Latin inerrabilis "unerring," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + errabilis, from Latin errare "to wander; to err" (see err). Related: Inerrability "infallibility" (1620s).
inerrancy (n.) Look up inerrancy at
1788, from inerrant + -cy.
inerrant (adj.) Look up inerrant at
1650s, in reference to "fixed" stars (as opposed to "wandering" planets), from Latin inerrantem (nominative inerrans) "not wandering, fixed (of stars)," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + errans, present participle of errare "to wander, stray, roam, rove" (see err). Meaning "unerring, free from error" is from 1785.
inert (adj.) Look up inert at
1640s, "without inherent force, having no power to act or respond," from French inerte (16c.) or directly from Latin inertem (nominative iners) "unskilled, incompetent; inactive, helpless, weak, sluggish; worthless," used of stagnant fluids, uncultivated pastures, expressionless eyes. It is a compound of in- "without, not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + ars (genitive artis) "skill" (see art (n.)). In chemistry, "having no active properties, neutral" (1800), specifically from 1885 of certain chemically inactive, colorless, odorless gases. Of persons or creatures, "indisposed or unable to move or act," from 1774.
inertia (n.) Look up inertia at
1713, "that property of matter by virtue of which it retains its state of rest or of uniform rectilinear motion so long as no foreign cause changes that state" [Century Dictionary], introduced as a term in physics 17c. by German astronomer and physician Johann Kepler (1571-1630) as a special sense of Latin inertia "unskillfulness, ignorance; inactivity, idleness," from iners (genitive inertis) "unskilled; inactive" (see inert). Also sometimes vis inertia "force of inertia." Used in 1687 by Newton, writing in Modern Latin. The classical Latin sense of "apathy, passiveness, inactivity" is attested in English from 1822.
inertial (adj.) Look up inertial at
"pertaining to inertia," 1737, from inertia + -al (1). Related: Inertially.
inertness (n.) Look up inertness at
"inactivity; fact of being inert," 1660s, from inert + -ness.
inescapable (adj.) Look up inescapable at
1792, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + escapable (see escape (v.)). Related: Inescapably.