epistaxis (n.) Look up epistaxis at Dictionary.com
"nosebleed," 1793, medical Latin, as if from Greek *epistaxis, a false reading for epistagmos, from epi "upon" (see epi-) + stazein "to let fall in drops" (see stalactite).
epistemic (adj.) Look up epistemic at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to knowledge," 1886, from Greek episteme "knowledge," especially scientific knowledge (see epistemology) + -ic.
epistemology (n.) Look up epistemology at Dictionary.com
"theory of knowledge," 1856, coined by Scottish philosopher James F. Ferrier (1808-1864) from Greek episteme "knowledge, acquaintance with (something), skill, experience," from Ionic Greek epistasthai "know how to do, understand," literally "overstand," from epi "over, near" (see epi-) + histasthai "to stand," from PIE *sta- "to stand" (see stet). The scientific (as opposed to philosophical) study of the roots and paths of knowledge is epistemics (1969). Related: Epistemological; epistemologically.
epistle (n.) Look up epistle at Dictionary.com
partly from Old English epistol and in part directly from Old French epistle, epistre (Modern French épitre), from Latin epistola "a letter," from Greek epistole "message, letter, command, commission," whether verbal or in writing, from epistellein "send to, send as a message or letter," from epi "to" (see epi-) + stellein in its secondary sense of "to dispatch, send" from PIE *stel-yo-, suffixed form of root *stel- "to put, stand," with derivatives referring to a standing object or place (see stall (n.1)). Also acquired in Old English directly from Latin as pistol. Specific sense of "letter from an apostle forming part of canonical scripture" is c. 1200.
epistolary (adj.) Look up epistolary at Dictionary.com
1650s, from French épistolaire, from Late Latin epistolarius "of or belonging to letters," from Latin epistola "a letter, a message" (see epistle). In Middle English as a noun (early 15c.), "book containing epistles read in the Mass," from Medieval Latin epistolarium.
epistrophe (n.) Look up epistrophe at Dictionary.com
1640s, from Late Latin epistrophe, from Greek epistrophe "a turning about, twisting, a turning (of affairs), a moving up and down," from epi "upon" (see epi-) + strophe "a turning" (see strophe). In rhetoric, a figure in which successive phrases are followed by the same word of affirmation; also used in music. Related: Epistrophic.
epitaph (n.) Look up epitaph at Dictionary.com
"inscription on a tomb or monument," mid-14c., from Old French epitaphe (12c.) and directly from Medieval Latin epitaphium "funeral oration, eulogy," from Greek epitaphion "a funeral oration," noun use of neuter of epitaphios (logos) "(words) spoken on the occasion of a funeral," from epi "at, over" (see epi-) + taphos "tomb, funeral rites," from PIE root *dhembh- "to bury." Related: Epitaphial. Among the Old English equivalents was byrgelsleoð.
epithalamium (n.) Look up epithalamium at Dictionary.com
"bridal song," 1590s (earlier in nativized form epithalamy, 1580s), from Latin epithalamium, from Greek epithalamion "a bridal song," noun use of adjective meaning "of or for a bridal, nuptial," from epi "at, upon" (see epi-) + thalamos "bridal chamber, inner chamber" (see thalamus). Related: Epithalamic.
epithelium (n.) Look up epithelium at Dictionary.com
1748, Modern Latin (Frederick Ruysch), from Greek epi "upon" (see epi-) + thele "teat, nipple" (see fecund). Related: Epithelial.
epithet (n.) Look up epithet at Dictionary.com
"descriptive name for a person or thing," 1570s, from Middle French épithète or directly from Latin epitheton (source also of Spanish epíteto, Portuguese epitheto, Italian epiteto), from Greek epitheton "an epithet; something added," noun use of adjective (neuter of epithetos) "attributed, added, assumed," from epitithenai "to add on," from epi "in addition" (see epi-) + tithenai "to put" (see theme). Related: Epithetic; epithetical.
epitome (n.) Look up epitome at Dictionary.com
1520s, "an abstract; brief statement of the chief points of some writing," from Middle French épitomé (16c.), from Latin epitome "an abridgment," from Greek epitome "an abridgment, a cutting on the surface; brief summary," from epitemnein "cut short, abridge," from epi "into" (see epi-) + temnein "to cut" (see tome). Sense of "person or thing that typifies something" is first recorded c. 1600. Related: Epitomical.
epitomise (v.) Look up epitomise at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of epitomize. For spelling, see -ize. Related: Epitomised; epitomises; epitomising.
epitomize (v.) Look up epitomize at Dictionary.com
1590s, "shorten, condense, abridge," from epitome + -ize. Meaning "typify, embody" is from 1620s. Related: Epitomized; epitomizing; epitomizes.
epizoic (adj.) Look up epizoic at Dictionary.com
"living on the surface or in the skin of animals," 1832, from epizoon + -ic.
epizoon (n.) Look up epizoon at Dictionary.com
"parasitic animal on the surface or in the skin of another," 1836, from epi- "on" + Greek zoon "animal" (see zoo-).
epizootic (n.) Look up epizootic at Dictionary.com
animal equivalent of epidemic, 1748, from French épizootique, from épizootie, irregularly formed from Greek epi "on, upon" (see epi-) + zoon "animal" (see zoo-). As an adjective from 1790.
epoch (n.) Look up epoch at Dictionary.com
1610s, epocha, "point marking the start of a new period in time" (such as the founding of Rome, the birth of Christ, the Hegira), from Medieval Latin epocha, from Greek epokhe "stoppage, fixed point of time," from epekhein "to pause, take up a position," from epi "on" (see epi-) + ekhein "to hold" (see scheme (n.)). Transferred sense of "a period of time" is 1620s; geological usage (not a precise measurement) is from 1802.
epochal (adj.) Look up epochal at Dictionary.com
1680s, from epoch + -al (1).
epode (n.) Look up epode at Dictionary.com
1590s, a kind of lyric poem in which a short line follows a longer one (invented by Archilochus, also used by Horace), from Latin epodos, from Greek epodus "after-song, incantation," from epi "after" (see epi-) + odein "to sing" (see ode). Related: Epodic.
eponym (n.) Look up eponym at Dictionary.com
one whose name becomes that of a place, a people, an era, an institution, etc., 1833, from Greek eponymos "given as a name, giving one's name to something," as a plural noun (short for eponymoi heroes) denoting founders (legendary or real) of tribes, cities, etc.; from comb. form of epi "upon, (called) after," (see epi-) + onyma, Aeolic dialectal variant of onoma "name" (see name (n.)).
eponymous (adj.) Look up eponymous at Dictionary.com
"giving one's name to," 1833; see eponym + -ous. Related: Eponymously. Alternative form eponymal is used in reference to the other classical eponymos, a title of certain magistrates in ancient Greece who gave their names to the years when they held office. Eponymic has been used in the sense "name-giving; pertaining to eponymic myths" as well as "of or pertaining to a classical eponymos."
epoxy (n.) Look up epoxy at Dictionary.com
1916, in reference to certain chemical compounds, from epi- + first element of oxygen. Epoxy- is used as a prefix in chemistry to indicate an oxygen atom that is linked to two carbon atoms of a chain, thus forming a "bridge" ("intramolecular connection" is one of the chemical uses of epi-). Resins from epoxides are used as powerful glues. Hence the verb meaning "to bond with epoxy" (1965). Related: Epoxied.
epsilon (n.) Look up epsilon at Dictionary.com
from Greek, literally e psilon "bare -e-, -e- and nothing else," so called by late grammarians in contradistinction to the diphthong -ai-, which had come to have the same sound. Greek psilon "smooth, simple" is of uncertain origin (Watkins suggests PIE root *bhes- (1) "to rub").
Epsom salts Look up Epsom salts at Dictionary.com
magnesium sulphate, 1770, obtained from Epsom water, the water of a mineral spring at Epsom in Surrey, England, the medicinal properties of which were discovered in Elizabethan times. The place name is recorded c.973 as Ebbesham, literally "Ebbi's homestead," from the name of some forgotten Anglo-Saxon. The mineral supply there was exhausted 19c.
Epstein-Barr virus Look up Epstein-Barr virus at Dictionary.com
1968, named for British virologist Michael Anthony Epstein and Irish-born virologist Yvonne M. Barr.
ept (adj.) Look up ept at Dictionary.com
1938, back-formation from inept, usually with an attempt at comical effect. Related: Eptitude; eptly.
equability (n.) Look up equability at Dictionary.com
1530s, from Latin aequabilitatem (nominative aequabilitas) "equality, uniformity, evenness," figuratively "impartiality," from aequabilis "equal, consistent, uniform" (see equable).
equable (adj.) Look up equable at Dictionary.com
1670s, back-formation from equability or else from Latin aequabilis "equal, consistent, uniform, not varying" from aequare "make uniform" (see equate). Related: Equably; equableness.
equal (adj.) Look up equal at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "identical in amount, extent, or portion;" early 15c., "even or smooth of surface," from Latin aequalis "uniform, identical, equal," from aequus "level, even, flat; as tall as, on a level with; friendly, kind, just, fair, equitable, impartial; proportionate; calm, tranquil," which is of unknown origin. Parallel formation egal (from Old French egal) was in use late 14c.-17c. Equal rights is from 1752; by 1854 in American English in reference to men and women. Equal opportunity (adj.) in terms of hiring, etc. is recorded by 1925.
equal (v.) Look up equal at Dictionary.com
1580s, "compare, liken, consider as equal" (obsolete), also "match, rival, become equal to," from equal (adj.). Related: Equaled; equaling.
equal (n.) Look up equal at Dictionary.com
1570s, from equal (adj.).
equalise (v.) Look up equalise at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of equalize; see -ize. Related: Equalised; equalising; equaliser; equalisation.
equalitarian (adj.) Look up equalitarian at Dictionary.com
1799, in reference to the doctrine that all mankind are equal, from equality on model of humanitarian, etc. As a noun from 1837.
equalitarianism (n.) Look up equalitarianism at Dictionary.com
1857, from equalitarian + -ism.
equality (n.) Look up equality at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "evenness, smoothness, uniformity;" c. 1400, in reference to amount or number, from Old French equalité "equality, parity" (Modern French égalité, which form dates from 17c.), from Latin aequalitatem (nominative aequalitas) "equality, similarity, likeness" (also sometimes with reference to civil rights), from aequalis "uniform, identical, equal" (see equal (adj.)). Early 15c. as "state of being equal." Of privileges, rights, etc., in English from 1520s.
equalization (n.) Look up equalization at Dictionary.com
1781, from equalize + -ation.
equalize (v.) Look up equalize at Dictionary.com
1580s, "make equal, cause to be equal in amount or degree," from equal (adj.) + -ize. Sports score sense attested by 1925. Related: Equalized; equalizing.
equalizer (n.) Look up equalizer at Dictionary.com
1792, agent noun from equalize. Sports sense attested by 1930; in the U.S. underworld slang sense of "pistol," it is from c. 1900.
equally (adv.) Look up equally at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "in equal shares," from equal (adj.) + -ly (2). Meaning "impartially" is from 1520s; that of "in an equal manner, uniformly" is from 1660s.
equanimity (n.) Look up equanimity at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, "fairness, impartiality," from French équanimité, from Latin aequanimitatem (nominative aequanimitas) "evenness of mind, calmness; good-will, kindness," from aequanimis "mild, kind," literally "even-minded," from aequus "even, level" (see equal (adj.)) + animus "mind, spirit" (see animus). Meaning "evenness of temper" in English is from 1610s.
equanimous (adj.) Look up equanimous at Dictionary.com
"of a steady temper," 1650s, from Latin aequanimis "mild, kind" (see equanimity) + -ous.
equate (v.) Look up equate at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "to make similar or the same; to balance or harmonize; distribute (ingredients) uniformly; reduce to evenness or smoothness; to set (a fracture)," from Latin aequatus "level, levelled, even, side-by-side," past participle of aequare "make even or uniform, make equal," from aequus "level, even, equal" (see equal (adj.)). Earliest use in English was of astrological calculation, then "to make equal;" meaning "to regard as equal" is early 19c. Related: Equated; equating.
equation (n.) Look up equation at Dictionary.com
late 14c., a term in astrology (from French équation, 14c.); general sense of "action of making equal" is from 1650s, from Latin aequationem (nominative aequatio) "an equal distribution, a sharing in common," noun of state from past participle stem of aequare (see equal (adj.)). Mathematical sense is from 1560s, on notion of equalizing the expressions; Chemistry sense is from 1807.
equator (n.) Look up equator at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Medieval Latin aequator (diei et noctis) "equalizer (of day and night)," agent noun from Latin aequare "make equal" (see equate). When the sun is on the celestial equator, twice annually, day and night are of equal length. Sense of "celestial equator" is earliest, extension to "terrestrial line midway between the poles" first recorded in English 1610s.
equatorial (adj.) Look up equatorial at Dictionary.com
1660s, from equator + -ial. Related: Equatorially.
equerry (n.) Look up equerry at Dictionary.com
royal officer, especially one charged with care of horses, 1590s, short for groom of the equirrie, from esquiry "stables" (1550s), from Middle French escuerie (Modern French écurie), perhaps from Medieval Latin scuria "stable," from Old High German scura "barn" (German Scheuer); or else from Old French escuier "groom," from Vulgar Latin scutarius "shield-bearer." In either case, the spelling was influenced by Latin equus "horse," which is unrelated.
equestrian (adj.) Look up equestrian at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to or relating to horses or horsemanship," 1650s, formed in English from Latin equester (genitive equestris) "of a horseman, knightly," from eques "horseman, knight," from equus "horse" (see equine). As a noun, "one who rides on horseback," from 1786. The feminine form equestrienne is attested from 1848 (Century Dictionary calls it "circus-bill French"). An earlier adjective was equestrial (1550s).
equi- Look up equi- at Dictionary.com
before vowels equ-, word-forming element meaning "equal, having equal," from Latin aequi-, comb. form of aequus "equal, even" (see equal (adj.)).
equiangular (adj.) Look up equiangular at Dictionary.com
1650s; see equi- + angular. French équiangle is from 16c.
equidistant (adj.) Look up equidistant at Dictionary.com
1560s, from French équidistant (14c.), from Late Latin aequidistantem (nominative aequidistans), from aequi- (see equal (adj.)) + distans (see distant). In reference to a type of map projection, from 1866. Related: Equidistance.