glitter (n.) Look up glitter at
c. 1600, "sparkling or scintillating light," from glitter (v.). As "sparkling powdery substance" used in ornamentation, by 1956. Glitter rock is from 1972.
glitterati (n.) Look up glitterati at
1956, from glitter, with a play on literati.
glitz (n.) Look up glitz at
"showiness without substance," 1977, a back-formation from glitzy.
glitzy (adj.) Look up glitzy at
"tawdry, gaudy, showy but in bad taste," 1966, from Yiddish glitz "glitter," from German glitzern "sparkle" (see glitter (v.)).
gloam (n.) Look up gloam at
1821 (Keats, "La Belle Dame sans Merci"), a back-formation from gloaming that consciously or not revives the Old English noun.
gloaming (n.) Look up gloaming at
Old English glomung "twilight, the fall of evening," found but once (glossing Latin crepusculum), and formed (probably on model of æfning "evening") from glom "twilight," which is related to glowan "to glow" (hence "glow of sunrise or sunset"), from Proto-Germanic *glo- (see glow (v.)). Fell from currency except in Yorkshire dialect, but preserved in Scotland and reintroduced by Burns and other Scottish writers after 1785.
gloat (v.) Look up gloat at
1570s, "to look at furtively," probably a variant of earlier glout "to gaze attentively, stare, scowl, look glum, pout" (mid-15c.), from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse glotta "to grin, smile scornfully and show the teeth," Swedish dialectal glotta "to peep;" or from Middle High German glotzen "to stare, gape," from the Germanic group of *gl- words that also includes glower. Sense of "to look at with malicious satisfaction, ponder with pleasure something that satisfies an evil passion" first recorded 1748. Johnson didn't recognize the word, and OED writes that it was probably "taken up in the 16th c. from some dialect." Related: Gloated; gloating. As a noun, from 1640s with sense of "side-glance;" 1899 as "act of gloating."
Whosoever attempteth anything for the publike ... the same setteth himselfe upon a stage to be glouted upon by every evil eye. [translators' "note to the reader" in the 1611 King James Bible]
glob (n.) Look up glob at
1900, perhaps suggested by blob, gob, etc. Also compare glop.
global (adj.) Look up global at
1670s, "spherical," from globe + -al (1). Meaning "worldwide, universal, pertaining to the whole globe of the earth" is from 1892, from a sense development in French. Global village first attested 1960, popularized, if not coined, by Canadian educator Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980).
Postliterate man's electronic media contract the world to a village or tribe where everything happens to everyone at the same time: everyone knows about, and therefore participates in, everything that is happening the minute it happens. Television gives this quality of simultaneity to events in the global village. [Carpenter & McLuhan, "Explorations in Communication," 1960]
global warming (n.) Look up global warming at
by 1983 as the name for a condition of overall rising temperatures on Earth and attendant consequences as a result of human activity. Originally theoretical, popularized as a reality from 1989.
globalisation (n.) Look up globalisation at
chiefly British English spelling of globalization; for spelling, see -ize.
globalise (v.) Look up globalise at
chiefly British English spelling of globalize (q.v.); for spelling, see -ize.
globalism (n.) Look up globalism at
1961, from global + -ism.
globalization (n.) Look up globalization at
1961, noun of action from globalize (q.v.).
globalize (v.) Look up globalize at
from 1953 in various senses; the main modern one, with reference to global economic systems, emerged 1959. See global + -ize. Related: Globalized; globalizing.
globally (adv.) Look up globally at
"throughout the whole world," by 1910, from global + -ly (2).
globate (adj.) Look up globate at
"spherical," 1847, from Latin globatus, from globus (see globe (n.)). Globated in the same sense is attested from 1727.
globe (n.) Look up globe at
late 14c., "a large mass;" mid-15c., "spherical solid body, a sphere," from Middle French globe (14c.) and directly from Latin globus "round mass, sphere, ball" (also, of men, "a throng, crowd, body, mass"), which is related to gleba "clod, lump of soil" (see glebe) and perhaps glomus "a ball, ball of yarn," but de Vaan says the last two probably are non-IE loan-words. Sense of "the planet earth," also "map of the earth or sky drawn on the surface of an artificial sphere" are attested from 1550s. Meaning "globe-shaped glass vessel" is from 1660s. "A globe is often solid, a sphere often hollow. The secondary senses of globe are physical; those of sphere are moral." [Century Dictionary"].
globe-trotter (n.) Look up globe-trotter at
also globetrotter, "world traveler," especially one who goes from country to country around the world with the object of covering ground or setting records, 1871, from globe + agent noun from trot (v.). As a verb, globetrot is recorded from 1883. Related: Globe-trotting.
globose (adj.) Look up globose at
"spherical, like or resembling a sphere," early 15c., "large and formless," from Latin globosus "round as a ball," from globus (see globe). Related: Globosity.
globular (adj.) Look up globular at
"globe-shaped, round, spherical and compact," 1650s, from French globulaire or Medieval Latin globularis, or directly from Latin globus "round mass, sphere, ball" (see globe). Earlier in same sense was globical (1610s). Astronomical globular cluster attested from 1806.
globule (n.) Look up globule at
"small, spherical body; little globe or sphere," 1660s, from French globule, from Latin globulus "a little ball," diminutive of globus "round mass, sphere, ball" (see globe).
glockenspiel (n.) Look up glockenspiel at
1825 as a type of organ-stop 1834 as a musical instrument consisting of small bells or metal bars struck by hammers, from German Glockenspiel, literally "play of bells," from plural of Glocke "bell" (see clock (n.)) + Spiel "a play" (see spiel).
glom (v.) Look up glom at
1907, glahm "grab, snatch, steal," American English underworld slang, from Scottish glaum (1715), apparently from Gaelic glam "to handle awkwardly, grab voraciously, devour." Sense of "look at, watch" (1945) apparently is derived from the same source. Related: Glommed; glomming.
glomeration (n.) Look up glomeration at
"accumulation; ball," 1620s, from Latin glomerationem (nominative glomeratio), noun of action from past participle stem of glomerare "to wind or make into a ball, roll together, collect," from glomus "ball of yarn" (see globe).
gloom (n.) Look up gloom at
1590s, originally Scottish, "a sullen look," probably from gloom (v.) "look sullen or displeased" (late 14c., gloumen), of unknown origin; perhaps from an unrecorded Old English verb or from a Scandinavian source (compare Norwegian dialectal glome "to stare somberly"), or from Middle Low German glum "turbid," Dutch gluren "to leer." Not considered to be related to Old English glom "twilight" (see gloaming).

Sense of "darkness, obscurity" is first recorded 1629 in Milton's poetry; that of "melancholy, dejection, cloudiness or cheerless heaviness of mind" is from 1744; but gloomy with a corresponding sense is attested from 1580s.
gloomy (adj.) Look up gloomy at
1580s, probably from gloom (n.) even though that word is not attested as early as this one. Shakespeare used it of woods, Marlowe of persons. Gloomy Gus has been used in a general sense of "sullen person" since 1902, the name of a pessimistic and defeatist newspaper comics character introduced about that time by U.S. illustrator Frederick Burr Opper. Related: Gloomily; gloominess.
glop (n.) Look up glop at
"inferior food," 1943, imitative of the sound of something unappetizingly viscous hitting a dinner plate.
gloria (n.) Look up gloria at
name of one of the Christian songs of praise, early 13c., from Medieval Latin gloria in Gloria in Excelsis, the Great Doxology, Gloria Patri (the Lesser Doxology), from Latin gloria "glory" (see glory (n.)).
Gloria Look up Gloria at
fem. proper name, literally "glory" (see gloria (n.)).
glorification (n.) Look up glorification at
early 15c. "admission to Heaven, exaltation" (theological), from Late Latin glorificationem (nominative glorificatio), noun of action from past participle stem of glorificare "to glorify" (see glorify). General sense by mid-19c. Also in 15c. as a term in alchemy, "action of refining; state of being refined." Gloriation "praising" is from c. 1400.
glorified (adj.) Look up glorified at
mid-14c., "invested with glory," past participle adjective from glorify. Weakened sense of "transformed into something better" is from 1821.
glorify (v.) Look up glorify at
mid-14c., "praise, honor, extol" (God or a person), also "vaunt, be proud of, boast of; glorify oneself, be proud, boast;" from Old French glorefiier "glorify, extol, exalt; glory in, boast" (Modern French glorifier), from Late Latin glorificare "to glorify," from Latin gloria "fame, renown, praise, honor" (see glory (n.)) + -ficare, from facere "to make, do" (see factitious). From mid-15c. in non-theological sense, "praise highly." In Chaucer also "to vaunt, boast," But this sense has faded in English. Related: Glorified; glorifying.
glorious (adj.) Look up glorious at
late 13c., from Anglo-French glorious, Old French glorieus "glorious, blessed" (12c., Modern French glorieux), from Latin gloriosus "full of glory, famous," from gloria (see glory (n.)). In classical Latin and in English late 14c.-17c. it also could mean "boastful, vainglorious." Related: Gloriously; gloriousness. In Middle English with comparative gloriouser, superlative gloriousest.
glory (n.) Look up glory at
c. 1200, gloire "the splendor of God or Christ; praise offered to God, worship," from Old French glorie "glory (of God); worldly honor, renown; splendor, magnificence, pomp" (11c., Modern French gloire), from Latin gloria "fame, renown, great praise or honor," a word of uncertain origin.
The etymology as *gnoria "knowledge, fame" to gnarus "known" and i-gnorare has been acknowledged by some scholars, and rejected by others. In its favour speak the semantics of words for "glory", which in Indo-European societies mostly have to do with "spoken praise", "reputation by hearsay". Against the assumed etymology speak the phonetics. [de Vaan]
Meaning "one who is a source of glory" is from mid-14c. Also in Middle English "thirst for glory, vainglory, pride, boasting, vanity" (late 14c.), Sense of "magnificence" is late 14c. in English. Meaning "worldly honor, fame, renown." Latin also had gloriola "a little fame." Glory days was in use by 1970. Old Glory for "the American flag" is first attested 1862.

The Christian sense are from the Latin word's use in the Bible to translate Greek doxa "expectation" (Homer), later "an opinion, judgment," and later still "opinion others have of one (good or bad), fame; glory," which was used in Biblical writing to translate a Hebrew word which had a sense of "brightness, splendor, magnificence, majesty of outward appearance." The religious use has colored that word's meaning in most European tongues. Wuldor was an Old English word used in this sense.
glory (v.) Look up glory at
mid-14c., "to rejoice" (now always with in), from Old French gloriier "glorify; pride oneself on, boast about," and directly from Latin gloriari which in classical use meant "to boast, vaunt, brag, pride oneself," from gloria (see glory (n.)). Related: Gloried; glorying.
glory hole (n.) Look up glory hole at
1825, "drawer or box where things are heaped together in a disorderly manner." The first element probably is a variant of Scottish glaur "to make muddy, dirty, defile" (Middle English glorienleir "mud." Hence, in nautical use, "a small room between decks," and, in mining, "large opening or pit." Meaning "opening through which the interior of a furnace may be seen and reached" (originally in glassblowing) is from 1849, probably from glory (n.), which had developed a sense of "circle or ring of light" by 1690s. Sexual (originally homosexual) sense from 1940s.
gloss (n.1) Look up gloss at
"glistening smoothness, luster," 1530s, probably from Scandinavian (compare Icelandic glossi "flame," related to glossa "to flame"), or obsolete Dutch gloos "a glowing," from Middle High German glos; probably ultimately from the same source as English glow (v.). Superficial lustrous smoothness due to the nature of the material (unlike polish, which is artificial).
gloss (n.2) Look up gloss at
"word inserted as an explanation, translation, or definition," c. 1300, glose (modern form from 1540s; earlier also gloze), from Late Latin glossa "obsolete or foreign word," one that requires explanation; later extended to the explanation itself, from Greek glossa (Ionic), glotta (Attic) "language, a tongue; word of mouth, hearsay," also "obscure or foreign word, language," also "mouthpiece," literally "the tongue" (as the organ of speech), from PIE *glogh- "thorn, point, that which is projected" (source also of Old Church Slavonic glogu "thorn," Greek glokhis "barb of an arrow").

Glosses were common in the Middle Ages, usually rendering Hebrew, Greek, or Latin words into vernacular Germanic, Celtic, or Romanic. Originally written between the lines, later in the margins. By early 14c. in a bad sense, "deceitful explanation, commentary that disguises or shifts meaning." This sense probably has been colored by gloss (n.1). Both glossology (1716) and glottology (1841) have been used in the sense "science of language."
gloss (v.) Look up gloss at
c. 1300, glosen "use fair words; speak smoothly, cajole, flatter;" late 14c. as "comment on (a text), insert a word as an explanation, interpret," from Medieval Latin glossare and Old French gloser, from Late Latin glossa (see gloss (n.2)). Modern spelling from 16c.; formerly also gloze.

The other verb, meaning "to add luster, make smooth and shining," is from 1650s, from gloss (n.1). Figurative sense of "smooth over, hide" is from 1729, mostly from the first verb, in its extended sense of "explain away, veil or shift the meaning of," but showing influence of the second. Related: Glossed; glossing.
glossalgia (n.) Look up glossalgia at
"pain in the tongue," 1847, medical Latin, from glosso- "tongue" + -algia "pain." Greek glossalgia meant only "talking till one's tongue aches."
glossary (n.) Look up glossary at
"collected explanations of words (especially those not in ordinary use), a book of glosses," mid-14c., from Latin glossarium "collection of glosses," from Greek glossarion, diminutive of glossa "obsolete or foreign word" (see gloss (n.2)). Related: Glossarial.
glossator (n.) Look up glossator at
"writer of glosses," late 14c., from Medieval Latin glossator, from Latin glossa (see gloss (n.2)). Also in same sense were glosser (c. 1600), glossographer (c. 1600), glossist (1640s), glossarist (1774), glossographist (1774).
glosso- Look up glosso- at
before vowels gloss-, word-forming element meaning "tongue," from Greek glosso-, used as a comb. form of glossa (Attic glotta) "tongue" (see gloss (n.2)). Also sometimes meaning "gloss, word inserted as explanation," as in glossography "the writing of glosses."
glossocomium (n.) Look up glossocomium at
in medical use, "case for a broken limb," 1670s, from Latinized form of Greek glossocomion "small case for holding the reed of a wind instrument," from glossa "mouthpiece," literally "tongue" (see gloss (n.2)).
glossolalia (n.) Look up glossolalia at
"gift of tongues, speaking in tongues, ability to speak foreign languages without having learned them," 1857 (earlier in German and Italian), from Greek glossa "tongue, language" (see gloss (n.2)) + lalia "talk, prattle, a speaking," from lalein "to speak, prattle," echoic.
glossy (adj.) Look up glossy at
"smooth and shining," 1550s, from gloss (n.1) + -y (2). Figurative use from 1690s. The noun sense of "photograph with a glossy surface" is from 1931. Related: Glossies; glossiness.
glottal (adj.) Look up glottal at
1846, "pertaining to or formed by the glottis;" see glottis + -al (1). Glossal is attested from 1860.
glottis (n.) Look up glottis at
"mouth of the windpipe, opening at the top of the larynx," 1570s, from Greek glottis "mouthpiece of a pipe," from glotta, Attic dialect variant of glossa "tongue" (see gloss (n.2)).
glotto- Look up glotto- at
word-forming element meaning "language," from Attic Greek glotto-, from glotta, variant of glossa "tongue; language" (see gloss (n.2)).