chronograph (n.) Look up chronograph at
"precise time-measuring device," 1868, from chrono- "time" + -graph "instrument for recording; something written." Compare Greek khronographos "recording time and events" (adj.); "a chronicler" (n.).
chronological (adj.) Look up chronological at
"arranged in order by time," 1610s, from chronology + -ical. Chronological order is attested by 1754. Related: Chronologic (1610s); chronologically.
chronology (n.) Look up chronology at
1590s, from Middle French chronologie or directly from Modern Latin chronologia; see chrono- + -logy. Related: Chronologer (1570s).
chronometer (n.) Look up chronometer at
1735, from chrono- "time" + -meter. Related: Chronometric.
chrysalid (adj.) Look up chrysalid at
"pertaining to a chrysalis," c. 1810, see chrysalis. As a noun variant of chrysalis, 1620s, perhaps from Middle French chrysalide.
chrysalis (n.) Look up chrysalis at
c. 1600, from Latin chrysallis, from Greek khrysallis (genitive khrysallidos) "golden colored pupa of the butterfly," from khrysos "gold," perhaps of Semitic origin (compare Hebrew and Phoenician harutz "gold") + second element meaning something like "sheath." Seeking a plural, OED leans toward the classically correct chrysalides.
chrysanthemum (n.) Look up chrysanthemum at
1550s, from Latin chrysanthemum, from Greek khrysanthemon "marigold," literally "golden flower," from khrysos "gold" (see chrysalis) + anthemon "a flower," from PIE *andh- "bloom" (see anther).
chryselephantine (adj.) Look up chryselephantine at
"overlaid with gold and ivory," 1816, probably via German, from Latinized form of Greek khryselephantinos, from khrysos "gold" (see chrysalis) + elephantinos "made of ivory," from elephans (genitive elephantos) "elephant; ivory" (see elephant).
Chrysler Look up Chrysler at
U.S. automobile corporation, organized 1925 as Chrysler Corporation by Walter P. Chrysler (1875-1940) out of the old Maxwell Motor Co. (Maxwell produced a car named Chrysler in 1924). The name is a spelling variant of German Kreisler, perhaps related to kreisel "spinning top," but the sense connection is unclear.
chthonian (adj.) Look up chthonian at
1804, from Latinized form of Greek khthonios (see chthonic) + -an.
chthonic (adj.) Look up chthonic at
1882, with suffix -ic, from Greek khthonios "of the earth, in the earth," from khthon "the earth, solid surface of the earth" (mostly poetic) from PIE root *dhghem- (source also of Greek khamai "on the ground," first element in chameleon; also Latin humus "earth, soil," humilis "low;" Lithuanian žeme, Old Church Slavonic zemlja "earth;" Sanskrit ksam- "earth" (opposed to "sky"); Old Irish du, genitive don "place," earlier "earth").
chub (n.) Look up chub at
type of river fish, mid-15c., chubbe, of unknown origin. In Europe, a kind of carp; in U.S., the black bass.
chubbiness (n.) Look up chubbiness at
1805, from chubby + -ness.
chubby (adj.) Look up chubby at
1610s, literally "resembling a chub," from chub, the short, thick type of fish + -y (2). Perhaps influenced by Old Norse kumba "log," kumben "stumpy."
ME chubbe ... was also used of a "lazy, spiritless fellow; a rustic, simpleton; dolt, fool" (1558), whilst Bailey has "Chub, a Jolt-head, a great-headed, full-cheeked Fellow," a description reminiscent of that of the chevin, another name for the chub ... Thus the nickname may have meant either "short and thick, dumpy like a chub," or "of the nature of a chub, dull and clownish." ["Dictionary of English Surnames"]
chuck (v.1) Look up chuck at
"to throw," 1590s, variant of chock "give a blow under the chin" (1580s), possibly from French choquer "to shock, strike against," imitative (see shock (n.1)). Related: Chucked; chucking.
chuck (n.1) Look up chuck at
"piece of wood or meat," 1670s, probably a variant of chock (n.) "block." "Chock and chuck appear to have been originally variants of the same word, which are now somewhat differentiated" [OED]. Specifically of shoulder meat from early 18c. American English chuck wagon (1880) is from the meat sense.
Chock and Chuck, Are low terms, very frequently used before full,--as the coach was chock full of passengers. The house was chuck full. [Daniel Powers, "A Grammar on an Entirely New System," West Brookfield, 1845]
chuck (n.2) Look up chuck at
"slight blow under the chin," 1610s, from chuck (v.1). Meaning "a toss, a throw" is from 1862. Related: Chucked; chucking.
chuckle (v.) Look up chuckle at
1590s, frequentative of Middle English chukken "make a clucking noise" (late 14c.), of echoic origin. It originally meant "noisy laughter." Related: Chuckled; chuckling.
chuckle (n.) Look up chuckle at
1754, from chuckle (v.).
chucklehead (n.) Look up chucklehead at
also chuckle-head, "blockhead, dolt," (18c.), with head (n.), the first element perhaps from chuck (n.1).
chuff Look up chuff at
"pleased, happy," c. 1860, British dialect, from obsolete chuff "swollen with fat" (1520s). A second British dialectal chuff has an opposite meaning, "displeased, gruff" (1832), from chuff "rude fellow," or, as Johnson has it, "a coarse, fat-headed, blunt clown" (mid-15c.), which is of unknown origin. Related: Chuffed.
chug (n.) Look up chug at
1866, echoic of a working steam engine. As a verb, from 1884. Related: Chugged; chugging. Drinking sense attested by 1940s (chug-a-lug), probably imitative of the sound of swallowing.
chukker (n.) Look up chukker at
also chucker, "period in a polo game," 1898, from Hindi chakkar, from Sanskrit cakra "circle, wheel" (see chakra).
chum (n.1) Look up chum at
"friend," 1680s, originally university slang for "roommate," from alternative spelling of cham, short for chamber(mate); typical of the late-17c. fondness for clipped words. Among derived forms used 19c. were chumship; chummery "shared bachelor quarters," chummage "system of quartering more than one to a room."
chum (n.2) Look up chum at
"fish bait," 1857, perhaps from Scottish chum "food."
chummy (adj.) Look up chummy at
1874, from chum (n.1) + -y (2). Related: Chumminess. Previously it was a noun, a common name for a chimney sweep, as a corruption of chinmey.
chump (n.) Look up chump at
1703, "short, thick lump of wood," akin to Old Norse kumba "block of wood." Meaning "blockhead" is first attested 1883. Chump change attested by 1950.
chunder (v.) Look up chunder at
"vomit," 1950, Australian slang, of unknown origin.
chunk (n.) Look up chunk at
"thick block" of something, 1690s, probably a nasalized variant of chuck (n.1) "cut of meat;" meaning "large amount" is 1883, American English.
chunk (v.) Look up chunk at
"to throw," 1835, American English, from chunk (n.) or by similar mutation from chuck (v.1). Related: Chunked; chunking.
chunky (adj.) Look up chunky at
"thickset," 1751, from chunk + -y (2). Originally U.S. colloquial. Related: Chunkiness.
Chunnel (n.) Look up Chunnel at
1928, a blend of (English) Channel + tunnel (n.).
church (n.) Look up church at
Old English cirice, circe "church, public place of worship; Christians collectively," from Proto-Germanic *kirika (source also of Old Saxon kirika, Old Norse kirkja, Old Frisian zerke, Middle Dutch kerke, Dutch kerk, Old High German kirihha, German Kirche), probably [see note in OED] from Greek kyriake (oikia), kyriakon doma "Lord's (house)," from kyrios "ruler, lord," from PIE root *keue- "to swell" ("swollen," hence "strong, powerful"); see cumulus. Phonetic spelling from c. 1200, established by 16c. For vowel evolution, see bury. As an adjective from 1570s.

Greek kyriakon (adj.) "of the Lord" was used of houses of Christian worship since c.300, especially in the East, though it was less common in this sense than ekklesia or basilike. An example of the direct Greek-to-Germanic progress of many Christian words, via the Goths; it probably was used by West Germanic people in their pre-Christian period.

Also picked up by Slavic, probably via Germanic (Old Church Slavonic criky, Russian cerkov). Finnish kirkko, Estonian kirrik are from Scandinavian. Romance and Celtic languages use variants of Latin ecclesia (such as French église, 11c.).

Church-bell was in late Old English. Church-goer is from 1680s. Church key is early 14c.; slang use for "can or bottle opener" is by 1954, probably originally U.S. college student slang. Church-mouse, proverbial in many languages for its poverty, is 1731 in English.
church (v.) Look up church at
"to bring or lead to church," mid-14c., from church (n.). Related: Churched.
churchman (n.) Look up churchman at
mid-13c., from church (n.) + man (n.).
churchyard (n.) Look up churchyard at
early 12c., from church + yard (n.1).
churl (n.) Look up churl at
Old English ceorl "peasant, freeman, man without rank," from Proto-Germanic *kerlaz, *karlaz (source also of Old Frisian zerl "man, fellow," Middle Low German kerle, Dutch kerel "freeman of low degree," German Kerl "man, husband," Old Norse karl "old man, man").

It had various meaning in early Middle English, including "man of the common people," "a country man," "husbandman," "free peasant;" by 1300, it meant "bondman, villain," also "fellow of low birth or rude manners." For words for "common man" that acquire an insulting flavor over time, compare boor, villain. In this case, however, the same word also has come to mean "king" in many languages (such as Lithuanian karalius, Czech kral, Polish król) via Charlemagne.
churlish (adj.) Look up churlish at
late Old English cierlisc "of or pertaining to churls," from churl + -ish. Meaning "deliberately rude" is late 14c. Related: Churlishly; churlishness.
churn (n.) Look up churn at
Old English cyrin, from Proto-Germanic *kernjon (source also of Old Norse kirna, Swedish kärna, Danish kjerne, Dutch karn, Middle High German kern); probably akin to cyrnel "kernel" (see kernel) and describing the "grainy" appearance of churned cream.
churn (v.) Look up churn at
mid-15c., chyrnen, from churn (n.). Extended senses are from late 17c. Intransitive sense is from 1735. Related: Churned; churning. To churn out, of writing, is from 1902.
chute (n.1) Look up chute at
1725, American English, "fall of water" (earlier shoot, 1610s), from French chute "fall," from Old French cheoite "a fall," fem. past participle of cheoir "to fall," from Latin cadere (see case (n.1)). Meaning "inclined tube, trough" is from 1804; that of "narrow passage for cattle, etc." first recorded 1881. In North America, absorbing some senses of similar-sounding shoot (n.1).
chute (n.2) Look up chute at
short for parachute (n.), attested from 1920.
chutney (n.) Look up chutney at
1813, from Hindi chatni.
chutzpah (n.) Look up chutzpah at
also hutzpah, 1892, from Yiddish khutspe "impudence, gall." from Hebrew hutspah. The classic definition is that given by Leo Rosten: "that quality enshrined in a man who, having killed his mother and father, throws himself on the mercy of the court because he is an orphan."
chyle (n.) Look up chyle at
1540s, from Late Latin chylus, from Greek khylos "juice" (of plants, animals, etc.), from stem of khein "to pour, gush forth," from PIE *ghus-mo-, from root *gheu- "to pour, pour a libation" (see found (v.2)). Compare also chyme.
chyme (n.) Look up chyme at
early 15c., "bodily fluid;" c. 1600 in specific sense of "mass of semi-liquid food in the stomach," from Latin chymus, from Greek khymos, nearly identical to khylos (see chyle) and meaning essentially the same thing. Differentiated by Galen, who used khymos for "juice in its natural or raw state," and khylos for "juice produced by digestion," hence the modern distinction.
CIA Look up CIA at
U.S. civilian espionage agency, initialism (acronym) of Central Intelligence Agency, founded 1947 as successor to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS).
ciabatta (n.) Look up ciabatta at
type of Italian bread, c. 1990, from Italian ciabatta, literally "carpet slipper," so called for its shape; from the same source that produced French sabot, Spanish zapata (see sabotage (n.)).
ciao Look up ciao at
parting salutation, 1929, dialectal variant of Italian schiavo "(your obedient) servant," literally "slave," from Medieval Latin sclavus "slave" (see slave (n.)).
cicada (n.) Look up cicada at
late 14c., from Latin cicada "cicada, tree cricket," not a native Latin word; perhaps a loan-word from a lost Mediterranean language.